Complex sentences are made when we combine an independent clause with a dependent clause. The dependent clause in the following example is in italics. When the dependent clause comes first, as in the example above, it is separated from the independent clause with a comma. When the sentence begins with the independent clause, there is no need to separate the clauses with a comma. Comparing these two examples, it can be seen that the emphasis tends to fall on the clause at the beginning of the sentence.
Vary your placement of dependent clauses in order to emphasise the most important idea in the sentence. Common ways to begin a dependent clause are: although, as, because, even though, if, instead, through, when, whenever, where, while.
Whilst more than one dependent clause can be used in a sentence, they must always be combined with an independent clause to complete the idea. Again, the dependent clauses in this example are in italics. Although there are many dissenters, many of whom were prominent citizens , the policy still stands today. Different types of sentences can be combined to form compound-complex sentences.
In the example below, the central independent clause combines two sentence types. It serves as both the ending of the complex sentence and the beginning of the compound sentence.
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When punctuating a compound-complex sentence, apply the rules for both compound and complex sentences. The example above begins with a dependent clause separated from the central clause by a comma, as in the rule for complex sentences. At the end of the sentence the independent clause is joined by a comma and the word or , as in the rule for the compound sentences. Jackie is confident. She is a good speaker. She is considered to be an excellent presenter. Everyone finds her interesting. No one has been critical. She is supportive of others.
Everyone finds her interesting, and no one has been critical as she is supportive of others. Here's forte — English has two words spelled this way. One comes from Italian and the other from French. Meanwhile, many questions are answered here. For a list of international gender-neutral pronouns, see the entry on Pronouns.
See also Tip sheets for reporters and ADA. Language influences perception and attitudes. Grammar and style books for writers who wince at the idea of grammar and for popular reading "Grammar is a piano I play by ear. Not easy reading but may be of interest to editors who want a more deeply informed understanding of English grammar. Pullum Chronicle of Higher Education, Web URLs appear on interesting supplement pages. He captures essences in a few words. See also Fogarty's shorter, more focused, titles: Grammar Girl's Misused Words You'll Never Confuse Again know the difference between purposely and purposefully, hilarious and hysterical, affect and effect?
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Some of her works are available as ebooks. Exercises after each chapter help readers get the point. How long does someone have to be dead before you stop calling her "the late" etc. Listen here, online, to his interview on NPR. Grammar not-light. Fowler and David Crystal, an update of the classic by a linguist.
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Don't say, 'That's not true. Help with spelling and grammar, but stand up and cheer the use of imagination. Standards for citation differ somewhat different between trade and academic publishing. Citations for trade books are a bit more relaxed the assumption being perhaps that people are reading for interest, not as part of research to be further cited.
CMS is retiring ibid. Now: use shortened citations on repeats.
Common Sentence Faults
Some of us oldies will miss Ibid. They are strictly source citations no additional text , and usually there is some signal in the text as to the source the name of author quoted, "one newspaper reported," etc. Why use them? You don't clutter the text with superscripts, yet you provide the source information. Thanks to Gary Rosen for that explanation. Review of EndNote , Zotero , and Mendeley. Copyediting also recommends checking out Bibme and EasyBib.
Chapter 3. Putting Ideas into Your Own Words and Paragraphs
See also Reference Checker Good Citations. However, in November a reader writes: "I recommend CitationGenerator. And the result is a much slimmed-down, much friendlier guide that establishes a set of general principles for creating documentation and then explains their application in a wide range of ways.
The computer does the boring tasks while you focus on the content. Erin Brenner, Copyediting, A copyeditor's responsibilities regarding citations and an explanation of macros. Auto-generated bibliographies have come a long way--Stahl reviews available resources. Which program is right for you?
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Some things to think about when you choose Excellent comparison chart. Further resources. It will not perform any other copy-editing checks for such things as spelling, grammar, punctuation, etc. You can use the program free of charge for 10 days from installation. To continue using ReferenceChecker after the day trial period, you must purchase a licence" "licence" being a tipoff it's not U. Lokman I. Meho's evaluation of three major citation indexing databases for the Special Libraries Association, Meho also lists other specialized databases useful for citation searching.
Here are interactive tutorials for Scopus.
The CMS style uses footnotes at the bottom of page to help readers locate the sources. Those labels are public domain now, so anyone can use them. See story: How the dusty Merriam-Webster dictionary reinvented itself. An acronym is a string of initial letters pronounced as a word — e. For a great explanation of the complexities of acronyms, abbreviations, and initialisms, look at this Wikipedia entry , at the end of which are links to more acronym databases. See also GovSpeak a guide to U.
See for example the thematic affixes. See What's new for the latest changes in the online dictionary you can join their mailing list. Trademark hotlines: tmhotline inta. Diverting and, for those new to OMG, helpful. Online interactive dictionary and thesaurus, creates word maps that blossom with meanings and branch to related words. See this Visual Thesaurus blog entry for "fanboy" to get flavor of exchanges. Day Wordsmith. See archive. Worth reading for the concluding anecdote alone. Yes, for consistency. Advice here on what to include.
Be simple, be straightforward, be sparing with your words. Adverbs get trimmed out.